Ultimate Electrical Design and Fundamentals

Complete Electrical Design and Fundamentals
Master the Essentials: Electrical Systems – Theory & Design Calculations (more contents will be added weekly)

What you will learn

Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits: Understand Ohm’s Law, Kirchoff’s Laws, and Thevenin’s Theorem to analyze and solve electrical circuits.

AC Circuit Analysis: Master the analysis of AC circuits with resistive, inductive, and capacitive components, calculating power and power factor.

Three-Phase Systems: Learn the principles of three-phase circuits, including connections, power measurement, and power factor correction.

Harmonics and Mitigation: Grasp the concept of harmonics, their effects, and strategies to mitigate harmonics in electrical systems.

Energy Measurement: Explore various energy measurement methods, including electromechanical, electronic, and smart energy meters.

HT and LT Distribution: Differentiate between high-tension (HT) and low-tension (LT) distribution systems and their applications.

Per Unit System Basics: Learn the concept of the per unit system and its importance in power system analysis.

Switchgear and Protection: Explore the role of switchgear in electrical systems and the importance of protection devices.

Distribution System Types: Understand radial, ring, and mesh distribution systems in electrical power networks.

Fault Current Calculation: Calculate three-phase fault current and MVA using per unit values for power system protection.

Types of Circuit Breakers: Understand various circuit breaker types, including air, vacuum, and SF6 circuit breakers.

Switchboard and Switchgear Assemblies: Learn about high and low voltage switchgear assemblies.

Protection Systems: Understand the purpose of protection systems and their components, including relays and transformers.

Protection Schemes: Explore protection schemes, including overcurrent, earth fault, and differential protection.

Transformer Basics: Learn about distribution transformers, their types, and protection methods.

Cable Joints and Terminations: Explore methods for joining and terminating cables in electrical installations.

Earthing Systems: Learn about substation and system earthing, including the role of earthing conductors and circuit protective conductors (CPC).

Cable Construction and Types: Understand the construction, insulation materials, and specifications of electrical cables.

Electrical Installation Design Sequence: Understanding steps in designing electrical installations, ensuring a systematic approach to the process.

Determine Load Characteristics: Analyzing and calculating electrical load requirements for installations, considering equipment and load diversity.

Determine Supply Characteristics: Identifying and assessing power supply characteristics, such as voltage levels, frequency, and reliability.

Electrical Installation Outline: Creating an initial plan for installations, detailing the placement of components, circuits, and connections.

Power Distribution Design: Planning the distribution of electrical power, addressing cable routing, conductor sizing, and selecting distribution equipment.

Use Standard Final Circuits: Incorporating standard final circuits into designs, ensuring compliance with relevant regulations and standards.

Isolation and Switching Requirements: Defining requirements for isolation and switching mechanisms, prioritizing safety and functionality.

Final Assessment and Client Review: Conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the design and reviewing it with the client for alignment.

Design calculations

Electrical design

Departure from Local Electrical Standards: Addressing deviations from local standards, documenting and justifying any departures appropriately.

Fault calculations

Cable sizing

Shock protection

Ohm’s Law
Radial Distribution System
Electrical Installation Design Sequence



Electrical Circuit Theory and Analysis

What you will learn
Ohm’s Law
Application of Ohm’s Law in Series Resistors Connection
Application of Ohm’s Law in Parallel Resistors Connection
Example of a DC Circuit Analysis using Ohm’s Law
Kirchoff’s Laws
Example of Circuit Analysis using Kirchoff’s Laws
Thevenin’s Theorem
Example of Circuit Analysis using Thevenin’s Theorem
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Sine Wave of Single Phase AC Voltage
AC Circuit With Pure Resistance Load
Power in Pure Resistive Load
Examples of Resistive Loads
Power Loss in Conductor
AC Circuit With Pure Inductive Load
Power in Pure Inductive Load
Example of Inductive Loads
AC Circuit with Pure Capacitive Load
Power in Pure Capacitive Load
Example of Capacitive Loads
Summary on Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive Circuit
Analysis on Series RLC Circuit
Analysis on Parallel RLC Circuit
Active, Reactive and Apparent Power in AC Circuit
Power Triangle
Power Factor and Relationship to Reactive Power
Example on Series RLC Circuit and Power Calculation
Effect of High Reactive Load to Power Loss
Phasor and Complex Number for AC Circuit Calculation
Three Phase AC Waveforms
Advantages of Three Phase AC
Basic Structure of a 3-Phase Circuit
Star(Y) source to Star(Y) load
Star(Y) source to Delta(∆) load
Delta(∆) source to Star(Y) load
Delta(∆) source to Delta(∆) load
Phase Voltage and Line Voltage
Relationship between Phase Voltage and Line Voltage for Y Connected Load
Current for Y Connected Load
Current for ∆ Connected Load
Conversion of ∆ source/load to Y source/load or Vice Versa
Calculation of 3 Phase Y source to Y load Circuit
Example Calculation of 3 Phase Y source to Y load Circuit
Power in a 3 phase Balanced AC Circuit
Example Power in a 3 phase Balanced AC Circuit
Calculation of ∆-Y, Y-∆ and ∆-∆ connections
Power Factor Correction
Example of Power Factor Correction
AC Current Measurement
AC Voltage Measurement
AC Power Measurement
Single, Two and Three Wattmeter Method
Power Analyzer
Energy Measurement
Electromechanical Induction Type Energy Meters
Electronic Type Energy Meters
Smart Energy Meters
Electrical Tariff
Introduction of Power System Harmonics
Triplen Harmonics
Where Do Harmonics Come From?
Example of Distorted Waveform
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
RMS value of a Total Waveform with Harmonics
Power and Power Factor with Harmonics
Effects of Harmonics on Generator
Effects of Harmonics on Transformer
Effects of Harmonics on AC Induction Motors
Effects of Harmonics on Cables
Effects of Harmonics on Circuit Breakers and Fuses
Effects of Harmonics on Lightings
Harmonic Standards and Mitigation Strategies
Harmonic Mitigation by Delta-Delta and Delta-Wye Transformers
Harmonic Mitigation by Isolation Transformers
Harmonic Mitigation by Passive Harmonic Filters
Harmonic Mitigation by Active Harmonic Filters

Fundamental of Distribution and Protection Systems

What you will learn
Radial Distribution System
Ring Distribution System
Mesh Distribution System
Example of High Tension Distribution System
Example of LT Distribution System
Per Unit System
Selection & Calculation of Base Values of Per Unit System
Calculation of Per Unit Value
Establishing Uniform Base Values in Per Unit for Efficient Calculations
Purpose of Three Phase Fault Calculation
Derivation of Three Phase Fault Current
Derivation of Three Phase Fault MVA
Example of Three Phase Fault Current Calculation
Circuit Switching and Switchgears
Arcing Phenomena
Switching of Alternating Current Circuit
Electrical Specifications of Switching Devices
Switches, Switch-fuses and Fuse-switches
Rewirable Fuses
High Rupturing Capacity Fuse
Circuit Breakers – Essential Components in Electrical Systems
Miniature Circuit Breakers and Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
Air Circuit Breakers
Vacuum Circuit Breakers
SF6 Circuit Breakers
High Voltage Switchgear Assemblies
Low Voltage Switchgear Assemblies
Switchgear Isolation and Re-energization Procedures
Safety Precautions for Working with High Voltage Switchgear
Purpose of Protection Systems
Discrimination in Protection Systems
Earth Leakage Protection
Current Transformers
Voltage Transformers
Protection Relays
Protection Schemes
Combined Overcurrent and Earth Fault Protection
Differential Protection
Differential Protection of Feeders
Differential Protection of Transformers
Plug Setting of Protection Relays
Time Multiplier Setting of Protection Relays
Normal Inverse 3 10 IDMTL curve
Example of PS and TMS Settings of IDMTL Relays
Distribution Transformers
Mineral Oil-Filled Transformer, Silicon Oil Filled Transformer and Dry Type Tran
Terminal Markings of Transformers
Phase Shift in Transformers
Transformer Protection
Construction of Cables
Conductors and Applications
Cables Insulation Materials and Applications
Cable Types and Specifications
Cable Joints and Terminations
Substation Earthing and System Earthing
Earthing Conductor
Circuit Protective Conductor (CPC)

Overview of Electrical Installation Design Sequence

What you will learn
Electrical Installation Design Sequence
Determine Load Characteristics
Determine Supply Characteristics
Electrical Installation Outline
Power Distribution Design
Use Standard Final Circuits
Isolation and Switching Requirements
Final Assessment and Client Review
Departure from Local Electrical Standards

Simple Electrical Installation and Final Circuits

Characteristics of the Electricity Supply
Determine Fault rating of switchgear
Coordinating Load, Protective Device, and Cable Current Carrying Characteristics
Cable Sizing for Circuits without Overload Protection
Cable Sizing for Circuits with Overload Protection
30 and 32 A Ring Final Circuits
Example: Calculating Current and Protective Device Rating for a Shower Circuit
Example: 30 and 32 Ring Final Circuits Cable Sizing
Example: Ring Final Circuit Maximum Cable Length
Requirements for Fault Protection
Determining Maximum Cable Length for Voltage Drop Limits
Example: Maximum Cable Length Calculation for Ring Circuit
Example: Maximum Cable Length Calculation for Radial Circuit
Short-Circuit Current Protection Requirements
Protective Conductors Verification using Adiabatic Equation

Maximum Demand and Diversity Factor

Understanding Electrical Demand and Load Diversity
Example of Domestic Appliances Load Demand
Overview of Load Demand of Winter Weekday
Installation Outline and Load Identification
Current Demand in Final Circuits
Example: Determining Current Demand in a Shower Circuit
Example: Determining Current Demand in a Cooker Circuit
Example: Determining Current Demand of a Lighting Circuit
Example: Determining Current Demand of a Single Phase Motor Circuit
Diversity Between Final Circuits in Simple Installations(1)
Diversity Between Final Circuits in Simple Installations(2)
Example: Calculating Maximum Demand for a Small Office
Example: Calculating Maximum Demand for a Domestic Installation
Diversity in Multi-Dwelling Electrical Installations
Accurate Estimation of Diversity in Complex Installations
Estimating Maximum Demand and Demand Factors
Estimating Maximum Demand at Sub-Distribution Points
Tolerance in Demand Estimations
Estimating Demand on Socket-Outlet Circuits
Demand Factor g​
Example: After-Diversity Demand Calculation​

Cable Sizing for Current Carrying Capacity​

Common Symbols in Cable Sizing​
Initial Design​
Overcurrent Protection Requirements​
Fault Currents
Overload Currents​
Small Overloads​
Current-Carrying Capacity Tables​
Rating Factors Explanation​
Ambient temperature rating factor Ca​
Group Rating Factor (Cg)​
Group Rating Factor (Cg)​Continued
Cg for Mixed Single Phase and Three Phase Circuits in Shared Enclosure
Example of Cg for Three-Phase and Single-Phase Circuits in a Common Enclosure
Grouping Considerations for Lightly Loaded Circuits​
Example of Grouping Involving Lightly Loaded Circuits
Grouping Factors for Cables in Ducts Buried in Ground​
Ci – Rating Factor for Cables in Thermal Insulation​
Example Calculation Cable Current-Carrying Capacity in Thermal Insulation​
Buried Circuit Rating Factor Cc​
Soil Thermal Resistivity Rating Factor Cs​
Depth of laying rating factor Cd​
Example Determining Minimum Cross-Sectional Area of Underground Cables​
Conductor Operating Temperature and Safety Guidelines​
Cable Sizing for Protection Against Overload and Short Circuit​
Example of Cable Sizing for Protective Device Providing Overcurrent Protection​
Cable Sizing Overcurrent Protection for Conductors in Parallel​
Example Cable Sizing Overcurrent Protection for Parallel Conductors​
Protection against fault current only (omission of overload protection)​
Example Cable Sizing for Protection against fault current only
Motors Starting and Continuous Current​

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